Excavations carriet out in Şarhöyük, thought to be the first area of settlement in the city, prove that Eskişehir has a history dating back to 3000BC or earlier. It is possible to take this provenance even further back if one takes into account the findings from other mounds around it. The first civilisation that left significant marks on Eskişehir is the Phrygians, who inhabited this region during the 9th century BC. The most significant traces of them can be found in Yazılıkaya, the Phrygians' religious centre where many monuments and tombs can be seen.